Trypsin is a serine protease from the PA clan super-family, found in the digestive system of many vertebrates, where it hydrolyzes proteins. Trypsin cleaves peptide chains mainly at the carboxyl side of the amino acids lysine or arginine, except when either is followed by proline. Commercial protease preparations usually consist of a mixture of various protease enzymes that often includes trypsin. These preparations are widely used in food processing, as a baking enzyme to improve the workability of dough, in the extraction of seasonings and flavouring from vegetable or animal proteins and in the manufacture of sauces, to control aroma formation in cheese and milk products, to improve the texture of fish products, to tenderize meat, during cold stabilization of beer.
Chymotrypsin is a digestive enzyme component of pancreatic juice acting in the duodenum, where it performs proteolysis, the breakdown of proteins and polypeptides. Chymotrypsin preferentially cleaves peptide amide bonds.
Pancreatic enzymes also known as pancre-lipase and pancreatin, are commercial mixtures of amylase, lipase, and protease. They are used to treat mal-absorption syndrome due to pancreatic problems. These pancreatic problems may be due to cystic fibrosis, surgical removal of the pancreas, long term pancreatitis, or pancreatic cancer.
Pepsin is an endo-peptidase that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides. It is produced in the stomach and is one of the main digestive enzymes in the digestive systems of humans and many other animals, where it helps digest the proteins in food. It is a component of rennet used to curdle milk during the manufacture of cheese. Pepsin is used for a variety of applications in food manufacturing such as modify and provide whipping qualities to soy protein and gelatin, to modify vegetable proteins for use in non-dairy snack items, to make precooked cereals into instant hot cereals and to prepare animal and vegetable protein hydrolysates for use in flavoring foods and beverages. It is used in the leather industry to remove hair and residual tissue from hides and in the recovery of silver from discarded photographic films by digesting the gelatin layer that holds the silver.
Bromelain is an enzyme extract derived from the stems of pineapples, although it exists in all parts of the fresh plant and fruit. The extract has a history of folk medicine use. As a culinary ingredient, it may be used as a meat tenderizer. The term "bromelain" may refer to either of two protease enzymes extracted from the plants of the family Bromeliaceae, or it may refer to a combination of those enzymes along with other compounds produced in an extract. bromelain is one of the most popular proteases to use for meat tenderizing. Bromelain is sold in a powdered form, which is combined with a marinade, or directly sprinkled on the uncooked meat. Bromelain has been studied as an antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.
Lactase is essential to the complete digestion of whole milk; it breaks down lactose, a sugar which gives milk its sweetness. Lacking lactase, a person consuming dairy products may experience the symptoms of lactose intolerance. Lactase can be purchased as a food supplement, and is added to milk to produce lactose-free milk products. Lactase supplements are sometimes used to treat lactose intolerance.